GAME DAY QUICK FACTS:
The Teams: Holy Cross (8-8, 0-1 PL) vs. Navy (8-8, 1-0 PL)
Date: January 16, 2013
Time: 7:05 p.m.
Place: Hart Center (3,600), Worcester, Mass.
Holy Cross Radio: Dick Lutsk, play-by-play, Click here to listen
Live Video Streaming: Patriot League All-Access
WCTR Charter TV3: Kevin Shea, play-by-play; Amy O'Brien Davagian, color
Unofficial Live Statistics: PrestoSports Primetime
Series Record: Holy Cross leads, 38-11
Last Meeting: Navy 57, Holy Cross 48 (March 10, 2012, Annapolis, Md.)
Pos., No., Name, Ht., Cl.
F, 31, Raquel Scott, 6-0, Fr.
F, 32, Amy Lepley, 6-0, Sr.
F, 34, Christine Ganser, 6-1, Jr.
G, 2, Brisje Malone, 5-9, Jr.
G, 22, Alex Smith, 5-8, Jr.
REMATCH OF 2012 PATRIOT LEAGUE CHAMPIONSHIP: Holy Cross will host the rematch of the 2012 Patriot League Championship game, when Navy comes to the Hart Center on Wednesday, Jan. 16 at 7:05 p.m. The contest will be broadcasted live on WCTR Charter TV3 with Kevin Shea calling the play-by-play and former Crusader Amy O'Brien Davagian as the color commentator. After that, the Crusaders will travel to American on Saturday, Jan. 19 for a 2:00 p.m. tipoff and then will host Lafayette on Wednesday, Jan 23 at 7:00 p.m.
THE SERIES WITH NAVY: This will be the 50th meeting between the Crusaders and the Midshipmen, with Holy Cross holding the 38-11 series lead. These two teams met a season ago in the Patriot League Championship on March 10, 2012, as Navy would go on to win 57-48. The Mids have been dominant as of late in the series, as they are 7-2 over the past nine games, and have won the last two matchups. The Crusaders won in Annapolis, Md. a season ago as they defeated Navy, 55-38, on Jan. 11, 2012. During the first 40 matchups between these two squads, the Crusaders held the 36-4 series lead in games played from 1992-2008.
SERIES QUICK FACTS:
Overall: Holy Cross leads, 38-11
In Worcester: Holy Cross leads, 20-5
At the Hart Center: Holy Cross leads, 20-5
Bill Gibbons vs. Lehigh: 38-11
Stefanie Pemper vs. Holy Cross: 7-2
Current Win Streak: Navy, two games
In Overtime: Holy Cross leads, 3-1
LEPLEY BACK TO LEAD HOLY CROSS: After missing the first nine games of the year due to a pre-season injury, senior forward Amy Lepley (Norfolk, Mass.) has jumped right back into the Holy Cross starting lineup and has performed well. Through seven games this season, Lepley has averaged 11.9 points, 5.7 rebounds and 3.0 assists per contest. In her first game of the season versus Bryant, Lepley shot a perfect 7 of 7 from and field and 2 of 2 from the foul line for 16 total points. She registered her eighth career double-double with 10 points and 10 rebounds versus Dartmouth. In the game versus Fordham, Lepley became the 28th player in Holy Cross history to score 1,000 career points. In the Patriot League opener versus Lehigh, Lepley posted team-highs of 17 points and seven rebounds. The 2011-2012 second team All-Patriot League player averaged a team-best 13.4 and 6.4 rebounds per contest a season ago and was selected to the 2012-2013 Preseason All-Patriot League team.
1,000 POINTS MILESTONE IN REACH FOR PAIR: On Jan. 6 versus Fordham, Amy Lepley became the 28th Holy Cross women's basketball player to cross the 1,000 career points milestone. She currently has 1,033 total points during her four seasons at Holy Cross, which ranks her 24th on the all-time scoring list. Lepley also became the 75th player in the 23-year history of the Patriot League to score 1,000 points in a career. Meanwhile, Alex Smith is 23 points away from the same milestone and would be the 11th Crusader to reach the achievement during their junior season. Both Lepley and Smith have a chance to break into the top-20 on the Holy Cross all-time scoring list by season's end.
MALONE PLAYS KEY MINUTES IN BACKCOURT: Junior guard Brisje Malone (Springfield, Mass.) has done well this season both offensively and defensively for Holy Cross. Through 16 games, Malone is second on the team with 31.8 minutes played per contest and averages 9.1 points, 4.3 assists and 4.1 rebounds per game. Her assists mark is first in the Patriot League. She is fourth in the conference with a 1.3 assist/turnover ratio and is fifth with 1.5 steals. In the season opener versus Yale, Malone scored a career-high 23 points. She also hit the buzzer-beating bucket to lift Holy Cross over Central Connecticut as she posted a season-best nine assists. Malone tied her season best with nine helpers versus Brown. During the 2011-12 campaign, Malone played in all 34 games in and started in all but one. She averaged 8.7 points, 4.4 rebounds, and 1.5 steals in just under 30 minutes per contest.
GANSER STEPPING INTO STARTING ROLE: Junior forward Christine Ganser (Needham, Mass.) has filled in nicely for the Crusaders starting lineup. Through 16 games, she is fourth on the team with 8.9 points per contest and is second on the squad with an average of 5.6 rebounds (11th in the Patriot League). Ganser notched her second career double-double with a 17 point and 10 rebound effort versus Fordham. She also posted a season-high 17 points and hauled in seven rebounds against Harvard and 16 points and six rebounds in the win over UMass. Ganser ranks third in the Patriot League with a .477 field-goal percentage and seventh with 2.6 offensive boards per game. In 2011-2012, she averaged 19.5 minutes of playing time and put up totals of 6.2 points and 4.6 rebounds per game. Ganser also performed well from the charity stripe last year as she converted on 76.5 percent of her free throws, which was second best on the team.
SCOTT LEARNING QUICKLY FOR CRUSADERS: Freshman forward Raquel Scott (Ridgewood, N.J.) has begun her first collegiate season as a key contributor for Holy Cross. In the first 16 games, Scott averages 5.9 points and has 4.9 rebounds per contest. Her rebounds mark ranks 15th in the Patriot League. In her first start versus New Hampshire, Scott posted 14 points, five rebounds, four assists and a pair of steals in 36 minutes of action. Her best game of the season came at Manhattan, as the freshman recorded the first Crusaders double-double of the season with a 10 point and 12 rebound effort with six offensive boards. She also scored 11 points in the win over Brown. Scott has started in 13 of the 16 games this season for Holy Cross.
PARKER WORKING HARD IN THE POST: Sophomore forward Emily Parker (Johnston, Iowa) has been a strong presence in the frontcourt for the Crusaders this season, but has been sidelined as of late with an injury. In 10 games played this season, Parker is fifth on the squad with 8.3 points, third with 5.5 rebounds and first with 1.0 blocks per contest. She scored a season-best 18 points versus Yale in the season opener as she grabbed seven rebounds in the game against Boston College. In the win over Manhattan, Parker tallied nine points and a season-best nine rebounds. Parker is coming off a solid freshman campaign in which she took home Patriot League All-Rookie team accolades in 2011-2012. Last year, the 6'2" Parker played the number five position on the floor for the Crusaders as she appeared in 32 contests, starting in 31 of them. A season ago, she averaged 10.1 points and 6.0 rebounds per game, while also blocking a team-best 38 shots. Her points mark was third on the squad, while her rebound average was second.
COOPER BACK FROM INJURY: Sophomore guard Ashley Cooper (Colts Neck, N.J.) saw her first action of the season versus Bethune-Cookman. The long-range sharpshooter connected on her first three shots from behind the arc, as she was the second leading HC scorer with 13 points in 18 minutes of action. She also drilled a pair of treys in the win over Dartmouth. In the Patriot League opener versus Lehigh, she tied her career-best mark of 13 points. Through four games, Cooper is averaging 7.8 points and is 9 of 21 (.429%) from behind the arc in 18.8 minutes per contest. Last season, Cooper averaged 3.0 points per game and hit 23 of 68 of her shots from downtown (.338%) in 13.5 minutes per contest.
HOURIGAN COMING UP BIG FOR CRUSADERS: Freshman center Molly Hourigan (Memphis, N.Y.) has seen in increase in minutes over the last six games and has shown she can be a strong presence in the paint for Holy Cross. In only 11 minutes of action versus Bethune-Cookman, Hourigan grabbed a game-high eight rebounds. During the following matchup versus Dartmouth, she scored a season-best 10 points, while she hauled in six boards in 19 minutes of action. For the season, she has posted 2.0 points, 2.8 rebounds and 0.6 blocks in 7.1 minutes per game.
HAMNER ON THE COMEBACK TRAIL: After missing the first six games of the season due to injury, junior guard Kelly Hamner (Manassas ,Va.) has slowly worked herself back into the Crusaders playing rotation. In the game versus Manhattan on Dec. 1, Hamner saw five minutes of action as she scored two points. On Dec. 5 against Northeastern, she played 16 minutes off the bench and scored four points to go along with career-bests four assists and six rebounds. This season, Hamner is averaging 1.6 points and 1.5 rebounds in 9.0 minutes per contest. In 2011-12, Hamner saw 16.4 minutes of playing time per game and averaged 3.0 points and 2.6 rebounds.
FRESHMAN FRENZY: Holy Cross adds five new faces to this year's team with a large freshman class. Guards Lisa Mifsud (Erie, Pa.), Kate Gillespie (Washington, D.C.) and Jenn Walsh (Dallas, Texas) all were league champions for their respective high schools. Gillespie was also named Washington D.C. Gatorade girls basketball player of the year as a senior. In the front court, Raquel Scott and Molly Hourigan add size to an already tall front line. The 6'0" Scott comes from Immaculate Heart Academy, while the 6'4" Hourigan is the team's only center and is from Jordan-Elbridge. All five freshmen have seen action this season. Mifsud is averaging 3.5 points in 17.0 minutes per contest as she scored 11 points twice this season, versus Yale and Quinnipiac. Gillespie has made two starts for the Crusaders and averages 5.0 minutes per game.
OFF THE BENCH: With some early season injuries, many bench players have stepped up for the Crusaders. Senior forward Kaitlin Cole (Springfield, Pa.) has been a spark on the defensive side of the ball as she averages 1.3 rebounds and 1.1 steals in 9.6 minutes per game. In the Yale game, Cole posted career-highs with six rebounds and four steals, while versus Boston College, she also added a career-best three assists. She registered a career-high 28 minutes of action versus UMass to go along with four swipes. Sophomore forward Clare Sullivan (Belmont, Mass.) has averaged 8.8 minutes per contest with 3.4 points and 1.2 rebounds per game. In the game versus Central Connecticut, Sullivan scored 13 points in the first half on six-of-six shooting, which was a career-high. She also connected on her first collegiate three-pointer in the game versus the Blue Devils. Sullivan made her first career start versus Manhattan and scored six points. Senior guard Alexis Nicholas (Jamaica, N.Y.) has seen an average of 2.6 minutes of playing time this season and connected on her first collegiate three-pointer versus Brown.
LEHIGH RECAP: Lehigh sophomore guard Katie O'Reilly recorded a 17 point, 12 rebound double-double and hit the game-winning layup with one second on the clock to lead the Mountain Hawks to a 67-65 victory over Holy Cross in the Patriot League opener at the Hart Center on Saturday afternoon. Lehigh improves to 9-7 overall and 1-0 in the conference with its 10th straight win over Holy Cross, while the Crusaders fall to 8-8 and 0-1 in the league. After a pair of made free throws by Holy Cross junior guard Alex Smith, to knot the score at 63-63 with 1:10 left in the second half, freshman Lisa Mifsud stole the ball on the ensuing pass and gave the Crusaders a chance to take the lead. HC senior forward Amy Lepley narrowly missed the go-ahead three-pointer as Lehigh freshman Kerry Kinek scored on the other end to put the Mountain Hawks on top 65-63 with 23 ticks on the clock. Crusader junior forward Christine Ganser was fouled on the other end with nine seconds left and hit both free-throws to tie the score at 65-65. However, O'Reilly drove into the lane and converted her layup to give Lehigh the 67-65 victory. Both teams went back-and-forth to begin the contest as the lead exchanged hands seven times and was tied once over the first seven minutes of action, with Lehigh ahead 10-9. Holy Cross took the 11-10 lead at 10:53 and pushed it to its largest margin of the game (13-10) with 10:09 on the clock on the back of a freshman Raquel Scott layup. Lehigh's offense then caught fire and exploded on a 17-2 surge over the next six minutes to give it the 27-15 lead with 4:25 left in the first half. The Crusaders scored six straight points over the next two minutes to trail 27-21, as Smith scored four points during the run. However, the Mountain Hawks ended the half on a 5-1 rally to head into the locker room with the 32-23 advantage. After the intermission, HC got some momentum and was able to cut the deficit to four on two occasions over the first six minutes of play. The Crusaders then worked it to two points (41-39) at the 13:04 mark of the second half on a three-pointer by sophomore Ashley Cooper. Lehigh countered with an 11-4 rally to gain the 52-43 lead with 10:29 on the clock. Holy Cross battled over the next five minutes as it went on a 10-2 run to trail Lehigh by one (54-53) at 5:33. The Crusaders knotted the score at 56-56 just over one minute later with a layup-and-one by Mifsud. After Lehigh scored on the other end, Mifsud drilled a three-pointer to give Holy Cross the 59-58 lead (3:15). Both teams traded baskets on their next possessions, but a three-point make by the Mountain Hawks gave them the 63-61 edge with 2:02 on the clock. Smith would hit her free-throws a minute later to set the stage for the dramatic last minute of action. Lepley led Holy Cross with 17 points and seven rebounds, while Smith and Cooper each had 13 points apiece. Mifsud scored six off the bench for the Crusaders as Ganser chipped in with five points and three rebounds. In addition to O'Reilly for Lehigh, Kinek had 13 points, while freshman Becky Guman scored 10.
SCORING TRENDS: During the 2012-2013 season, Holy Cross has boasted strong records based on scoring trends. In games where its opponents score less than 60 points, Holy Cross is a perfect 5-0. Also, the Crusaders are 7-4 when they score 60 points or more this season. Lastly, when the Crusaders enter the second half with the lead, they have an overall record of 6-1.
HELP ME HELP YOU: Last season, Holy Cross was ranked ninth in the country and first in the Patriot League with 16.9 assists per contest and that largely had to do with junior guards Alex Smith and Brisje Malone. In 2012-2013, the pair has combined for 127 of Holy Cross' 248 assists with a combined average of 7.9 per game. Malone is first in the Patriot League with 4.3 assists per game, while Smith is just behind her in third place with 3.6 helpers per contest. In the game versus Central Connecticut, the pair combined for 14 assists on the team's 22 made field goals.
"SMITH"-SONIAN LEAVING MARK IN RECORD BOOK: Alex Smith is marking her name all over the Holy Cross career record books with her phenomenal play. The junior is now second on the list with 215 three-pointers made, trailing only Bethany O'Dell, who had 277. Her three-pointers converted mark is sixth best in Patriot League history. She is also third with 576 three-pointers attempted, trailing Briana McFadden (579) and O'Dell (700). Smith ranks 10th in career assists with 343 and would move into ninth place with 72 more this season. She is currently tied for fifth on the list with a .373 three-point percentage. In 2011-2012, Smith set Holy Cross records for most minutes played in a season (1199), most games started and played (34) and most three-pointers attempted (229).
HOLY CROSS' HIGH OCTANE OFFENSE: The Crusaders are coming off one of their best offensive seasons in recent years, as the team led the Patriot League in many shooting categories. This season, Holy Cross has continued its offensive success as it ranks second in the Patriot League with 62.2 points per game and first with a .420 field-goal percentage. In the season opener versus Yale, the Crusaders scored 87 points, which were the most points scored in an opening game since the 1988-1989 season. In the game versus Brown, the Crusaders scored 83 points as they shot 46 percent from the floor.
CRUSADERS PICKED THIRD IN PRESEASON POLL: Holy Cross was picked to finish third in the 2012-2013 Patriot League preseason poll, receiving 70 points and one first place vote. Navy was chosen to finish first, receiving eight first-place votes as junior Jade Geif was voted preseason Patriot League Player of the Year. The Mids earned a league-high 89 points and was followed by American, who received six first place votes and 85 points. Army was picked fourth with 66 points and one first place vote, while Lehigh (58 points) and Lafayette (30 points) were selected fifth and sixth, respectively. Bucknell and Colgate tied for seventh in the poll with 25 points each.
LEPLEY AND SMITH NAMED 2012-2013 TEAM CAPTAINS: The two leading scorers for the Crusaders last year, Amy Lepley and Alex Smith were named captains for the 2012-2013 season. Smith is coming off first-team All-Patriot League honors last year as she started in all 34 games. She averaged 12.5 points, 5.5 assists and 2.1 steals per contest. Her assist mark was tops in the Patriot League, while her points average was fifth. Lepley was named to the second-team All-Patriot League a season ago as she led the Crusaders with 13.4 points and 6.4 rebounds per contest. Her points-per-game average was third in the Patriot League, while her field goal percentage of 0.499 was also third-best. In addition, both players were also selected to the 2012-2013 preseason All-Patriot League.
CAPTAINS NAMED TO PRESEASON ALL-PATRIOT LEAGUE TEAM: After coming off great campaigns a season ago, Lepley and Smith were chosen to the preseason All-Patriot League team in a vote by conference sports information directors and head coaches. The duo joins the team with Army senior forward Anna Simmers, and two juniors, American's Alexis Dobbs and Navy's Jade Geif. Lepley and Smith were key contributors to last-year's Patriot League runner-up finish as they started in all 34 games for the Crusaders. Also, the pair was selected to the Patriot League All-Tournament team last year.
UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Crusaders are approaching this season with the theme of "unfinished business," as it is looking to capture the Patriot League crown for the 12th time in the program's history. Last season, the Crusaders made it to the Patriot League championship game for the first time since 2008, after knocking off top-seeded American in the semifinals. However, the team fell to Navy in the title game, 57-48, one win shy of going to the NCAA Tournament. The goal is to get back into the Patriot League Championship game and claim their first NCAA tournament automatic bid since the 2006-2007 season.
HOLY CROSS IN THE NCAA STATISTICS: The Crusaders are currently ranked in the top 150 in the NCAA Division I leaders in six statistical categories. In addition, Alex Smith and Brisje Malone are in the top 150 in the nation in four individual statistics as well. The rankings through games on Jan 13:
|Three-Pointers Made||16||Alex Smith||3.0|
|Field-Goal Percentage||62||Holy Cross||42.0|
|Personal Fouls||70||Holy Cross||14.8|
|Three-Point Percentage||72||Alex Smith||37.2|
|Assist-Turnover Ratio||105||Holy Cross||0.8|
FOR OPENERS: With the win over Yale, Holy Cross owns a 22-17 record in its opening game of the season. This year was the 23rd time the Crusaders opened the regular season at the Hart Center. In season openers at the Hart Center, Holy Cross is now 13-10 and ended its three-game losing streak. The team won its first season-opener under the guidance of Bill Gibbons on Nov. 23, 1985 away at Eastern Michigan. Since Gibbons took over as head coach, the Crusaders stand at 17-11 in openers. Over the past 10 years, Holy Cross is 4-6 on opening day, defeating Providence (68-48, 2004-2005), Northeastern (76-60, 2005-2006) and most recently Yale (68-56, 2006-2007, 87-71, 2012-2013), while falling to St. Peter's (87-76, 2003-2004), Vermont (54-45, 2007-2008) and Yale (65-63, 2008-2009, 66-60, 2009-2010, 74-71, 2010-2011, 77-71, 2011-2012).
HOME SWEET HOME: Holy Cross boasts a very strong record when playing at the Hart Center. In the 37 years of the women's program, the Crusaders have an all-time record winning percentage of 0.741 when playing their games at home (346-121). Since Holy Cross went to Division I during the 1982-83 season, they hold an even better 0.762 winning percentage with a record of 307-96 at the Hart Center.
CRUSADERS HAVE 11 PATRIOT LEAGUE TOURNAMENT CROWNS: Five years ago, the Crusaders captured their 11th Patriot League Tournament Crown with a 56-48 victory over American on March 7, 2007. Holy Cross has won half of the 22 Patriot League Championships since the conference's inception during the 1990-91 season. The Crusaders' previous tournament titles came in 2005, 2003, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1996, 1995, 1993 and 1991. Holy Cross has also appeared in the championship game 11 times over the past 15 years. Overall the Crusaders have made a conference-record 16 appearances in the Patriot League championship game.
GIBBONS AT THE HELM FOR 28TH SEASON: Bill Gibbons is in his 28th season at the helm of the Holy Cross women's basketball program and 32nd year as a member of the Holy Cross basketball family in 2012-2013. He has compiled a 523-309 record as head coach (.629 winning percentage), including a 19-15 record at the helm last season. He ranks 20th on the active Division I win leaders list after winning his 500th game on December 3, 2011. His quarter-century pledge to the team has made a major impact on all aspects of the women's basketball world and especially in the surrounding community. He has led the Crusaders to 11 Patriot League Championships in the last 22 years. He has also made 13 postseason appearances (11 NCAA Tournaments, one WNIT and one WBI) in his 27 years as head coach. With sixteen 20-win seasons under his belt, Gibbons has cemented himself and the women's basketball program as one of the best in the East. The sixth coach of the women's program at Holy Cross, Gibbons has enjoyed the longest tenure in the position. He has led the Holy Cross women's basketball program to more victories than any other coach, and is the winningest coach in Holy Cross Basketball history. With his 358th victory, he surpassed George Blaney (357 wins as head coach of the Holy Cross men's basketball program), who had hired him to be his assistant coach in 1981. Now with more than 515 wins, Gibbons is the second-winningest coach in Holy Cross Athletics history, behind legendary baseball coach Jack Barry, who totaled 616 wins from 1921-1960.
ON THE RADIO: Eleven of the Crusaders' basketball contests during the 2012-2013 season will be carried by Emmanuel Radio, WNEB 1230 AM in Worcester. Holy Cross Hall of Famer Bob Fouracre is in his 26th season calling the play-by-play for Crusader basketball on the radio. In addition, Jeremy Lechan and Dick Lutsk are in their ninth year on the Holy Cross broadcast crew, and will handle either play-by-play or color commentary for selected games. All games aired on Emmanuel Radio can also be heard live over the internet at 'www.1230radio.com'. Most games not carried on Emmanuel Radio will be streamed by Stretch Internet free of charge, with links to the broadcasts available at 'www.GoHolyCross.com'. WCHC 88.1 FM, the Holy Cross student station, will also carry a number of games this year.
ON TELEVISION: Holy Cross will have at least four games shown on live television during the 2012-2013 season. The Crusaders had seven television appearances last year, while appearing on television five times in 2010-11 and six times in 2009-10. Here is a look at Holy Cross' television schedule for the 2012-2013 season:
Date, Opponent, Television Outlet
Dec. 8, at Quinnipiac, New England Sports Network (NESN)
Jan. 16, vs. Navy, Charter TV3
Feb. 10, at Lehigh, CBS Sports Network
Feb. 27, vs. Army, Charter TV3
CRUSADER VISION: Live video streaming of most 2012-2013 Holy Cross home non-conference games will be available over the internet through Crusader Vision. The package, done in association with Stretch Internet, is available for $8.95 per game. Season packages are also available for men's basketball only ($29.95) or all Holy Cross sports ($99.95). For details on how to view games through Crusader Vision, visit 'www.GoHolyCross.com'.
ON THE INTERNET: Information on Crusader basketball and all 26 other varsity sports is available through the Holy Cross Athletics home page at "www.GoHolyCross.com". In addition, links to Holy Cross basketball audio broadcasts and live video streaming can be found on the home page. Updates on Holy Cross Athletics can also be found at "www.facebook.com/HolyCrossAthletics" and "www.twitter.com/GoHolyCross".
EMAIL ALERTS: Get all the latest news and results on the Holy Cross women's basketball team sent directly to your e-mail. To sign up for e-mail alerts, visit 'www.GoHolyCross.com/list-signup'.
SCOUTING THE MIDS: Navy has an 8-8 record overall this season and is 1-0 in the Patriot League after it won its league opener versus Lafayette, 62-44. Over their last six games, the Mids are 2-4 with wins against the Leopards and Marshall on Dec. 30, 2012 (67-51). Junior forward Jade Geif leads Navy with 12.4 points and 7.7 rebounds per contest, while third-year guard Alix Membreno ranks first for the Mids with 3.3 assists per game. Membreno also is second on the squad with 11.5 points. Navy head coach Stefanie Pemper enters her fifth season at the helm of the Mids and has an overall record of 79-63 at Navy. The 2010-2011 Patriot League Coach of the Year has guided the Mids to back-to-back NCAA Tournament appearances over the past two seasons, as she has claimed the only two Patriot League Tournament championships in the program's history.